← About the report

Investing in Tanzania’s People: 

Valuing the U.S.-Tanzania Partnership for Prosperity

May 2024

Divya Mathew, Bryan Burgess, Samantha Custer, Rodney Knight, Kelsey Marshall, Lucas Katera, Jane Mpapalika, Constantine George Simba and Cornel Jahari

Executive Summary

The United States is an important partner to Tanzania and the relationship between the two countries is built on three pillars: diplomacy, development and defense. However, the Tanzanian public has little information readily available to assess the value of this partnership in their daily lives, particularly as they measure progress toward achieving the development goals the country has set for itself in Tanzania’s Development Vision 2025. This report considers whether and how the U.S.-Tanzania partnership contributes to Tanzania’s growth and prosperity—both in the resources it mobilizes as well as in the outcomes it achieves.

The authors take a whole-of-society perspective in examining not only official development assistance (aid) but also private sector contributions via trade, tourism, investment, philanthropy, and remittances. This research analyzes historical financial flows from these U.S. sources to Tanzania over roughly a decade, from 2012 to 2022, and integrates insights on how Tanzanian public, private, and civil society leaders assess the partnership today from a survey and interviews. This analysis was produced by AidData lab, a U.S.-based research lab at the College of William & Mary’s Global Research Institute, in collaboration with REPOA, a Tanzanian policy research organization.

Following the money, U.S. government agencies, organizations, and individuals collectively contribute an estimated USD 2.8 billion annually (TZS 7,140 Bn) to Tanzania’s development. The U.S. government contributes approximately USD 1.0 billion annually (TZS 2,550 Bn), with a focus on the health, agriculture, and infrastructure sectors. In 2022, this included USD 824.2 million of direct bilateral and multilateral assistance and USD 205.3 million in indirect contributions from supportive U.S. policies. U.S.-based non-governmental sources contribute approximately USD 1.8 billion annually (TZS 4,590 Bn) including foreign direct investment (USD 1.3 billion), remittances from Tanzanians working in the U.S. (USD 103.7 million), tourism revenues (USD 317.7 million), private foundation giving (USD 96.3 million), as well as individual donations and microloans (USD 0.3 million).

Beyond these monetary gains, the United States-Tanzania partnership contributes to growth and prosperity in other significant ways.